Table 1.

Characteristics of TA-TLS in human tumors and their prognostic value.

Tumor typeTA-TLS markers by IHCTA-TLS gene signaturesTA-TLS locationTA-TLS organizationPatients (n)TA-TLS associationRef.
Bladder, primaryT and B cells, CD21 (FDC), PNAd, DC-LAMPPeritumoralClassical28Higher tumor grade(61)
Breast, primaryPNAd, DC-LAMPPeritumoral and intratumoralClassical146Favorable overall survival(62, 63)
T and B cells, TFH, GC B cellsTFHPeritumoral and intratumoralClassical794Favorable overall survival and response to chemotherapy(10)
T and B cells, GC B cells, CD21 (FDC), PNAd, DC-LAMPPeritumoralClassical290Higher tumor grade(40)
Mononuclear aggregatesPeritumoralND796Favorable overall survival(64)
Mononuclear aggregatesPeritumoralND447Favorable overall survival and response to adjuvant trastuzumab in patients with HER2+ tumors(46)
T and B cells, CD21 (FDC)PeritumoralClassical248Favorable overall survival in patients with HER2+ tumors(65)
Mononuclear aggregates, T and B cells, PNAdPeritumoralNonclassical108Favorable response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy(45)
Mononuclear aggregatesPeritumoralND769Favorable overall survival(30)
Cervical, primaryMononuclear aggregates, T and B cells, Ki67, PNAdPeritumoralNonclassical12Found in only vaccinated patients(50)
Colorectal, primaryT and B-cells, GC B cells, CD21 (FDC)12-chemokinePeritumoral and intratumoralClassical21Favorable overall survival(11)
T and B cells, CD21 (FDC), PNAd, CCL21, CXCL13PeritumoralClassical351Favorable overall survival(41)
Mononuclear aggregates, T and B cells12-chemokinePeritumoralClassical39Favorable overall survival(12)
Colorectal, lung metastaticT and B cells, PNAd, DC-LAMPIntratumoralClassical192Favorable overall survival(24)
Mononuclear aggregates, T cells, CD45RO+ T cells, Foxp3+ cellsPeritumoral and intratumoralND57No evaluation(16)
Colorectal, liver metastaticMononuclear aggregates, B cells, GC B cells, macrophagesPeritumoral (nontumor liver tissue)ND65Favorable overall survival(66)
Gastric, metastaticMononuclear aggregates, T and B cells, DC-LAMP, PNAdTH1 and B-cellIntratumoralClassical365Favorable overall survival(9)
Mononuclear aggregates, T and B cells, GC B cells, CD21 (FDC), DC-LAMP, PNAd, CCL21, CXCL13IntratumoralClassical176Advanced clinical disease; no impact on overall survival(67)
Liver, primaryMononuclear aggregatesIntratumoralND273Favorable overall survival(68)
Mononuclear aggregates12-chemokineIntratumoralND221Favorable overall survival(68)
Mononuclear aggregatesPeritumoral (nontumor liver tissue)ND217No impact on overall survival(68)
Mononuclear aggregates, T and B cells, CD68 (macrophages), Ly6G (neutrophils), Foxp3, CD21 (FDC)12-chemokinePeritumoral (nontumor liver tissue)Nonclassical82Unfavorable overall survival(13)
Mononuclear aggregates, T and B cells, macrophages, Foxp3, CD21 (FDC)IntratumoralNonclassical462Favorable overall survival(43)
Lung, primaryMononuclear aggregates, T and B cells, CD68 (macrophages), CD21 (FDC)PeritumoralClassical74Favorable overall survival(32)
Mononuclear aggregates, T and B cells, CD21 (FDC), PNAdPeritumoralClassical151Favorable overall survival only after neoadjuvant chemotherapy(69)
Mononuclear aggregates, T and B cells, CD21 (FDC), DC-LAMPIntratumoralClassical74Favorable overall survival(19)
Mononuclear aggregates, T and B cells, CD21 (FDC), DC-LAMPTH1/cytotoxicPeritumoral and intratumoralClassical362Favorable overall survival(20)
Mononuclear aggregates, T and B cells, GC B cells, CD21 (FDC), DC-LAMP, PNAd, CCL21, CXCL13PeritumoralClassical and nonclassical138Favorable overall survival(36)
Renal clear-cell, lung metastaticT and B cells, PNAd, DC-LAMPPeritumoralClassical57Unfavorable overall survival(24)
Melanoma, primaryMononuclear aggregates, T cells, DC-LAMPPeritumoralND82Favorable overall survival(70)
CD45RO+ T cells, B cells, CD21 (FDC), PNAdPeritumoralND39No impact on overall survival(71)
T and B cells, PNAdPeritumoralNonclassical225No impact on overall survival(72)
Melanoma, metastaticT and B cells, GC B cells, CD21 (FDC), DC-LAMP, PNAdFDCPeritumoralClassical29No impact on overall survival(26)
Mononuclear aggregates, T and B cells, macrophages, Foxp3+ cells12-chemokinePeritumoralClassical10Favorable overall survival(73)
T and B cells, GC B cellsCD20+– and CD8+– associatedPeritumoralClassical177Favorable overall survival and response to checkpoint immunotherapy(14)
Mononuclear aggregates, T and B cells, CD21 (FDC), Foxp3+ cellsCD20+ B-cellPeritumoralNonclassical127Favorable overall survival and response to checkpoint immunotherapy(47)
Mononuclear aggregates, T and B cells, naïve and activated B cells, Foxp3+ cellsB-cell plasmablast–likePeritumoralNonclassical10Favorable response to checkpoint immunotherapy(48)
Oral, primaryMononuclear aggregates, T and B cells, macrophages, DC-LAMP, PNAd12-chemokinePeritumoralClassical80Favorable overall survival(74)
Ovarian, metastaticMononuclear aggregates, T and B cells, GC B cells, CD21 (FDC), DC-LAMP, PNAdBCMAPeritumoral and intratumoralNonclassical172Favorable overall survival(8)
Mononuclear aggregates, DC-LAMPPeritumoral and intratumoralND147Favorable overall survival(75)
Pancreatic, primaryMononuclear aggregatesIntratumoralND308Favorable overall survival(42)
Mononuclear aggregates, T and B cells, DC-LAMP, PNAd, CCL21, CXCL13IntratumoralClassical104Favorable overall survival(76)
Mononuclear aggregates, T and B cells, CD45RO+ T cells, DC-LAMP, CD21 (FDC), Ki67, CD68 (macrophages), Foxp3+ cells, Tbet+ cells, PD-L1, CCL21IntratumoralClassical93Found in only vaccinated patients(17)
Soft-tissue, primaryT and B cells, CD21 (FDC), DC-LAMP, PNAd12-chemokineIntratumoralClassical and nonclassical47Favorable response to checkpoint immunotherapy(49)
Prostate, primaryMononuclear aggregates, T and B cells, CD21 (FDC), DC-LAMP, PNAd, CD68 (macrophages)PeritumoralNonclassical17No impact on overall survival(15)
  • Abbreviations: BCMA, B-cell maturation antigen; GC, germinal center; IHC, immunohistochemistry; ND, not determined.