Table 1.

Clinical, pathologic, and molecular characteristics of patients with colorectal cancer and their samples, according to F. nucleatum status in tumor tissue, stratified by MSI status

Non–MSI-highMSI-high
F. nucleatum in tumorF. nucleatum in tumor
All casesaNegativeaPositiveaNegativeaPositivea
Characteristic(n = 1,041)(n = 787)(n = 77)(n = 119)(n = 58)
Sex
 Female (NHS)609 (59%)437 (56%)42 (55%)85 (71%)45 (78%)
 Male (HPFS)432 (41%)350 (44%)35 (45%)34 (29%)13 (22%)
Mean age ± SD (years)69.5 ± 8.968.9 ± 9.069.5 ± 9.672.1 ± 7.672.5 ± 8.4
Race/ethnicity
 White995 (97%)751 (97%)74 (99%)114 (97%)56 (98%)
 Black16 (1.6%)13 (1.7%)02 (1.7%)1 (1.8%)
 Other11 (1.1%)8 (1.0%)1 (1.3%)2 (1.7%)0
Year of diagnosis
 1995 or before343 (33%)285 (36%)21 (27%)29 (24%)8 (14%)
 1996–2000286 (27%)216 (27%)25 (32%)33 (28%)12 (21%)
 2001–2012412 (40%)286 (36%)31 (40%)57 (48%)38 (66%)
Family history of colorectal cancer
In first-degree relative(s)
 Absent829 (80%)632 (81%)66 (88%)84 (71%)47 (81%)
 Present204 (20%)150 (19%)9 (12%)34 (29%)11 (19%)
Prediagnosis body mass indexb
 <25 kg/m2417 (40%)311 (40%)30 (39%)49 (42%)27 (47%)
 25–29.9 kg/m2424 (41%)330 (42%)35 (46%)43 (36%)16 (28%)
 ≥30 kg/m2194 (19%)142 (18%)11 (14%)26 (22%)15 (26%)
Prudent dietary patternc
 Quartile 1 (lowest)258 (25%)187 (24%)25 (33%)30 (25%)16 (28%)
 Quartile 2258 (25%)206 (26%)19 (25%)21 (18%)12 (21%)
 Quartile 3257 (25%)187 (24%)21 (28%)32 (27%)17 (29%)
 Quartile 4 (highest)258 (25%)199 (26%)11 (14%)35 (30%)13 (22%)
Western dietary patternc
 Quartile 1 (lowest)258 (25%)198 (25%)10 (13%)31 (26%)19 (33%)
 Quartile 2258 (25%)192 (25%)21 (28%)32 (27%)13 (22%)
 Quartile 3258 (25%)200 (26%)20 (26%)21 (18%)17 (29%)
 Quartile 4 (highest)258 (25%)190 (24%)25 (33%)34 (29%)9 (16%)
Tumor location
 Proximal colon522 (50%)332 (42%)33 (43%)104 (87%)53 (91%)
 Distal colon297 (29%)264 (34%)20 (26%)10 (8.4%)3 (5.2%)
 Rectum219 (21%)189 (24%)23 (30%)5 (4.2%)2 (3.5%)
Tumor differentiation
 Well to moderate936 (90%)745 (95%)67 (88%)86 (72%)38 (66%)
 Poor104 (10%)42 (5.3%)9 (12%)33 (28%)20 (34%)
AJCC disease stage
 I239 (25%)197 (27%)8 (11%)25 (22%)9 (17%)
 II314 (33%)199 (28%)21 (30%)64 (56%)30 (56%)
 III280 (29%)222 (31%)28 (39%)18 (16%)12 (22%)
 IV127 (13%)103 (14%)14 (20%)7 (6.1%)3 (5.6%)
CIMP status
 CIMP-low/negative794 (81%)688 (92%)68 (94%)24 (21%)14 (25%)
 CIMP-high191 (19%)56 (7.5%)4 (5.6%)89 (79%)42 (75%)
Mean LINE-1 methylation level ± SD (%)63.6 ± 10.462.6 ± 10.262.2 ± 9.468.4 ± 10.370.5 ± 9.5
KRAS mutation
 Wild-type541 (56%)390 (52%)30 (41%)88 (85%)33 (82%)
 Mutant420 (44%)353 (48%)44 (59%)16 (15%)7 (18%)
BRAF mutation
 Wild-type858 (83%)709 (91%)73 (95%)55 (47%)21 (37%)
 Mutant172 (17%)70 (9.0%)4 (5.2%)62 (53%)36 (63%)
PIK3CA mutation
 Wild-type812 (84%)617 (84%)59 (81%)91 (84%)45 (85%)
 Mutant160 (16%)121 (16%)14 (19%)17 (16%)8 (15%)
Tumor CD274 (PD-L1) expression
 Low263 (41%)176 (37%)29 (52%)37 (46%)21 (64%)
 High377 (59%)294 (63%)27 (48%)44 (54%)12 (36%)
Tumor PDCD1LG2 (PD-L2) expression
 0%–20%160 (25%)111 (24%)19 (37%)22 (28%)8 (25%)
 21%–50%148 (23%)110 (23%)11 (21%)17 (21%)10 (31%)
 51%–80%197 (31%)150 (32%)12 (23%)25 (31%)10 (31%)
 81%–100%129 (20%)99 (21%)10 (19%)16 (20%)4 (13%)
Bifidobacterium genus DNA
 Negative748 (73%)576 (75%)54 (71%)82 (69%)36 (63%)
 Positive276 (27%)197 (25%)22 (29%)36 (31%)21 (37%)
  • Abbreviations: AJCC, American Joint Committee on Cancer; CIMP, CpG island methylator phenotype; LINE-1, long interspersed nucleotide element-1; SD, standard deviation.

  • aPercentage indicates the proportion of cases with a specific clinical, pathologic, or molecular characteristic in all cases or in strata of F. nucleatum and MSI status. Total percentages may not equal 100% due to rounding.

  • bCalculated by dividing weight (kilogram) by squared height (meter).

  • cThe prudent dietary pattern is characterized by high intake of vegetables, fruits, fish, poultry, and whole grains, and the Western dietary pattern is characterized by high intake of red and processed meats, added sugar, and refined grains (42).