Table 2.

Genes differentially expressed in RCCs from responding versus nonresponding patients, assessed by qRT-PCR

Gene symbolaProtein functionbFC R/NRPcFC R/NRPc
AKR1C3Aldo-keto reductase family member, which catalyzes the conversion of aldehydes and ketones to alcohols and the reduction of prostaglandin D2 and phenanthrenequinone.−5.60.015−6.10.015
BACH2Transcription regulator, which induces apoptosis in response to oxidative stress and represses effector programs to stabilize Treg-mediated immune homeostasis.3.20.0272.90.150
BMP1Bone morphogenetic protein 1, which cleaves the C-terminal propeptides of procollagen I, II, and III and induces cartilage and bone formation.3.60.0123.30.137
CACNB1Voltage-dependent L-type calcium channel subunit beta-1, which contributes to the function of the calcium channel by increasing peak calcium current.4.80.0094.40.017
CCL3C-C motif chemokine 3 with inflammatory and chemokinetic properties.3.50.0383.20.071
CD24Signal transducer CD24, which modulates B-cell activation responses.−7.00.051−7.70.048
E2F8Transcription factor E2F8, which participates in various processes such as angiogenesis and polyploidization of specialized cells.2.60.0012.40.071
ENPP5Ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase family member, which may play a role in neuronal cell communication.−5.40.013−5.90.054
F2RL1Proteinase-activated receptor, which mediates inhibition of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF).−26.30.047−28.90.047
IL11RAReceptor for interleukin-11, which might be involved in the control of proliferation and/or differentiation of skeletogenic progenitor or other mesenchymal cells.3.00.0132.80.097
KCNJ16Inward rectifier potassium channel, which mediates regulation of fluid and pH balance.−13.20.010−14.50.018
LTBP1Latent-transforming growth factor beta-binding protein, which may play critical roles in controlling the activity of transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGFB) and may have a structural role in the extracellular matrix.2.00.0091.80.230
MALMyelin and lymphocyte protein, which can be an important component in the vesicular trafficking between the Golgi complex and the apical plasma membrane.−20.60.020−22.60.016
MYLK2Myosin light chain kinase, implicated in the level of global muscle contraction and cardiac function.53.40.05048.60.072
NFATC1Nuclear factor of activated T-cells, which plays a role in the inducible expression of cytokine genes in T cells regulating their activation and proliferation but also their differentiation and programmed death.3.30.0033.00.055
PITX2Pituitary homeobox, which controls cell proliferation in a tissue-specific manner and is involved in morphogenesis.22.40.09520.30.075
PLECPlectin, which interlinks intermediate filaments with microtubules and microfilaments and anchors intermediate filaments to desmosomes.2.60.0202.40.246
SLC23A1Solute carrier member, which mediates electrogenic uptake of vitamin C.−16.60.066−18.20.091
SLC37A4Glucose-6-phosphate translocase, which plays a central role in homeostatic regulation of glucose.−2.30.081−2.30.239
TNFRSF19Tumor necrosis factor receptor family member, which mediates activation of Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and nuclear factor-kappa-B (NF-κB), possible promoting caspase-independent cell death.7.10.0116.40.112
UCP3Mitochondrial uncoupling protein 3, involved in mitochondrial transport uncoupling oxidative phosphorylation.4.80.0014.40.051
UGT1A1UDP-glucuronosyltransferases, which mediate the elimination of toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds.−7.10.028−7.80.098
WHSC1Histone-lysine N-methyltransferase, which acts as a transcription regulator of cytokines.2.30.0062.10.293
  • NOTE: Listed are genes with expression fold change magnitude (FC) ≥2 and P ≤ 0.1 (Student t test) when normalized to either GUSB or PTPRC (CD45) expression. Positive FC indicates genes overexpressed in tumors from responding (R) patients; negative FC indicates overexpression in tumors from nonresponding (NR) patients.

  • aRefers to the official gene name (

  • bObtained from HUGO Gene Nomenclature Committee website:

  • cData were analyzed using the comparative Ct method (ΔΔCt), normalized to either GUSB (beta-glucuronidase) or PTPRC (CD45, pan immune cell marker). A two-tailed, unpaired Student t test was used to determine the statistical significance of FC values.