Table 2.

Oncogenic pathways associated with immune exclusion and immunosuppression within the tumor microenvironment and their relevant cancer types

Oncogenic pathwaysCancer type
WNT/β-catenin activationMelanoma (75)
Bladder cancer (39)
PTEN loss/PI3K-AKT activationMelanoma (41)
Glioma (83)
Sarcoma (84)
PPARγ/RXRα activationBladder cancer (39, 42)
Isocitrate dehydrogenase gain-of-function mutations (IDH1 and IDH2)Lower grade gliomas (51)
FGFR3 activationBladder cancer (39)
MYC activationAcute lymphoblastic leukemia, hepatocellular carcinoma, melanoma, NSCLC (43)
STAT3 oncogenic signalingNSCLC (85)
AXL receptor tyrosine kinase expressionBreast cancer (86)
Melanoma (87)
LKB1 (also known as STK11) loss of functionEndometrial cancer (49)
NSCLC (50)
TP53 loss of functionBreast cancer (estrogen receptor-negative; ref. 45)