Modulating the activity of tumor-infiltrating dendritic cells (TiDC) provides opportunities for novel cancer interventions. In this article, we report on our study of the uptake of mRNA by CD8α+ cross-presenting TiDCs upon its intratumoral (i.t.) delivery. We exploited this property to deliver mRNA encoding the costimulatory molecule CD70, the activation stimuli CD40 ligand, and constitutively active Toll-like receptor 4, referred to as TriMix mRNA. We show that TiDCs are reprogrammed to mature antigen-presenting cells that migrate to tumor-draining lymph nodes (TDLN). TriMix stimulated antitumor T-cell responses to spontaneously engulfed cancer antigens, including a neoepitope. We show in various mouse cancer models that i.t. delivery of TriMix mRNA results in systemic therapeutic antitumor immunity. Finally, we show that the induction of antitumor responses critically depends on TiDCs, whereas it only partially depends on TDLNs. As such, we provide a platform and a mechanistic rationale for the clinical testing of i.t. administration of TriMix mRNA. Cancer Immunol Res; 4(2); 1–11. ©2015 AACR.
Note: Supplementary data for this article are available at Cancer Immunology Research Online (http://cancerimmunolres.aacrjournals.org/).
K. Thielemans and K. Breckpot shared senior authorship.
- Received July 12, 2015.
- Revision received October 5, 2015.
- Accepted October 23, 2015.
- ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.