Blocking the programmed death-1 (PD-1) pathway has clinical benefit in metastatic cancer and has led to the approval of the mAbs pembrolizumab and nivolumab to treat melanoma and nivolumab for non–small cell lung cancer. Expression of PD-L1 on the cell surface of either tumor cells or infiltrating immune cells is associated with a higher likelihood of response to PD-1 blockade in multiple studies. Most mAbs to PD-L1 in use are directed to its extracellular domain and immunohistochemically stain tumor tissue with a mixture of cytoplasmic and membrane staining. Cytoplasmic staining obscures the interpretation of a positive reaction on the tumor cell membrane, and thus affects the accuracy of PD-L1 scoring systems. We developed a mAb to the cytoplasmic domain of PD-L1, 405.9A11 (9A11), which is both more selective for membranous PD-L1 and more sensitive in IHC and Western blotting, compared with previous mAbs specific for the PD-L1 extracellular domain. Here, we compare immunohistochemical staining patterns of PD-L1 expression in five types of tumors, using five PD-L1 mAbs: 9A11, 7G11, and three commercially available mAbs. We demonstrate that 9A11, as well as two other cytoplasmic domain-specific mAbs, E1L3N and SP142, can clearly delineate the membrane of PD-L1–positive cells in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue and facilitate interpretation of staining results. Cancer Immunol Res; 1–8. ©2015 AACR.
Note: Supplementary data for this article are available at Cancer Immunology Research Online (http://cancerimmunolres.aacrjournals.org/).
- Received April 27, 2015.
- Revision received August 24, 2015.
- Accepted September 8, 2015.
- ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.