The overall objective of the fifth American Association for Cancer Research Special Conference, “Tumor Immunology and Immunotherapy: A New Chapter,” organized by the Cancer Immunology Working Group, was to highlight multidisciplinary approaches of immunotherapy and mechanisms related to the ability of immunotherapy to fight established tumors. With the FDA approval of sipuleucel-T, ipilimumab (anti–CTLA-4; Bristol-Myers Squibb), and the two anti–PD-1 antibodies, pembrolizumab (formerly MK-3475 or lambrolizumab; Merck) and nivolumab (Bristol-Myers Squibb), immunotherapy has become a mainstream treatment option for some cancers. Many of the data presented at the conference and reviewed in this article showcase the progress made in determining the mechanistic reasons for the success of some treatments and the mechanisms associated with tolerance within the tumor microenvironment, both of which are potential targets for immunotherapy. In addition to combination and multimodal therapies, improvements in existing therapies will be needed to overcome the numerous ways that tumor-specific tolerance thwarts the immune system. This conference built upon the success of the 2012 conference and focused on seven progressing and/or emerging areas—new combination therapies, combination therapies and vaccine improvement, mechanisms of antibody therapy, factors in the tumor microenvironment affecting the immune response, the microbiomes effect on cancer and immunotherapy, metabolism in immunotherapy, and adoptive T-cell therapy. Cancer Immunol Res; 3(6); 1–8. ©2015 AACR.
- Received April 15, 2015.
- Accepted April 16, 2015.
- ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.