Cytotoxic T cells are typically expanded ex vivo for adoptive immunotherapy by culture with IL-2. This culture period leads to a differentiated phenotype and acquisition of effector function, as well as a loss of in vivo proliferative capability and anti-tumor efficacy. Here, we report antigen-specific and polyclonal expansion of cytotoxic T cells in a cocktail of cytokines and small molecules that leads to a memory-like phenotype in mouse and human cells even during extended culture, leading to enhanced in vivo expansion and tumor control in mice.
- Received March 5, 2014.
- Revision received April 18, 2014.
- Accepted May 13, 2014.
- Copyright © 2014, American Association for Cancer Research.