What We're Reading
Cancer Immunol Res April 1 2017 5 (4) 271-271;
Checkpoint blockade is becoming more widespread, so the timely and accurate diagnosis of immune-related colitis is increasingly important. By comparing diagnoses with colonoscopy data, CT scans were a fast, accurate, and non invasive mode of diagnosing ipilimumab-induced immune-related colitis.
This study provides clinical evidence that the interplay between DNA repair, CD8+ T cells, and expression of PD-L1 and PD-1 can promote aggressive tumor phenotypes. XRCC1-directed personalization of immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy may be feasible in breast cancer.
NKG2D-mediated immune surveillance is crucial for inhibiting tumor growth and metastases, but tumors often downregulate NKG2D ligands. A therapeutic strategy to restore tumor-specific expression of NKG2D ligands on solid tumors was developed that induced tumor regression and increased survival.
A meta-analysis of immune checkpoint therapies showed a small but significant increase in the risk of developing key immune-related adverse events of any grade, as well as selected high-grade gastrointestinal and liver toxicities.
Lung cancer cells exposed to granulocyte serine proteases increased the presentation of both endogenous peptides and the exogenous, protease-derived, HLA-A2-restricted PR1 peptide. Circulating CTLs specific for these peptides were identified in lung cancer patients.
Triple-negative breast cancers (TNBCs) are often infiltrated by T cells. These tumors counteracted T-cell activity through hypomethylated IDO1 promoters and increased IDO1 expression in response to IFNγ, providing a rationale for treatment of TNBC with IDO inhibitors.