Immunotherapy has recently entered a renaissance phase with the approval of multiple agents for the treatment of cancer. Immunotherapy stands ready to join traditional modalities, including surgery, chemotherapy, radiation, and hormone therapy, as a pillar of cancer treatment. Although immunotherapy has begun to have success in advanced cancer treatment, its scheduling and efficacy with surgery to treat earlier stages of cancer and prevent distant metastases has not been systematically examined. Here, we have used two models of spontaneously metastatic breast cancers in mice, to illustrate the significantly greater therapeutic power of neoadjuvant, compared with adjuvant immunotherapies in the context of primary tumor resection. Elevated and sustained peripheral tumor-specific immune responses underpinned the outcome, and blood sampling of tumor-specific CD8+ T cells immediately prior and post surgery may provide a predictor of outcome. These data now provide strong rationale to extensively test and compare neoadjuvant immunotherapy in humans.
Citation Format: Jing Liu, Stephen Blake, Michelle Yong, Heidi Harjunpaa, Shin Foong Ngiow, Kazuyoshi Takeda, Arabella Young, Stacey Allen, Mark J. Smyth, Michele WL Teng. Improved efficacy of neoadjuvant compared to adjuvant immunotherapy to eradicate metastatic disease [abstract]. In: Proceedings of the Second CRI-CIMT-EATI-AACR International Cancer Immunotherapy Conference: Translating Science into Survival; 2016 Sept 25-28; New York, NY. Philadelphia (PA): AACR; Cancer Immunol Res 2016;4(11 Suppl):Abstract nr B115.
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