The influence of the local immune response on the clinical course of colorectal cancer (CRC) has been analyzed extensively. Analyzing the invasive margin of human CRC liver metastases, we identified a protumoral mechanism of T-cell-derived CCL5 that leads to immune cell exploitation by tumor cells. Two distinct subsets of myeloid cells produce CXCL9/CXCL10, which induce an influx of T cells into the invasive margin. CCL5 is produced by these exhausted T cells and stimulates tumor cell proliferation and invasive behavior via CCR5 on tumor cells and macrophages. CCR5 inhibition in patient-derived functional in vitro organotypic culture models induced macrophage repolarization with anti-tumoral effects. These immunomodulatory and anti-tumoral effects of CCR5 blockade then could be confirmed in a phase I trial with a CCR5 antagonist in advanced refractory CRC patients with liver metastases. Amelioration of tumor-promoting inflammation on the tumor tissue level and objective tumor responses in advanced metastatic CRC patients were observed.
Citation Format: Niels Halama, Inka Zoernig, Anna Berthel, Christoph Kahlert, Fee Klupp, Meggy Suarez-Carmona, Juergen Krauss, Karsten Brand, Felix Lasitschka, Tina Lerchl, Claudia Luckner-Minden, Alexis Ulrich, Juergen Weitz, Martin Schneider, Markus W. Buechler, Laurence Zitvogel, Thomas Herrmann, Axel Benner, Christina Kunz, Stephan Luecke, Christoph Springfeld, Christine Falk, Dirk Jaeger. Macrophage repolarization therapy in metastatic colorectal cancer: CCR5 inhibition [abstract]. In: Proceedings of the Second CRI-CIMT-EATI-AACR International Cancer Immunotherapy Conference: Translating Science into Survival; 2016 Sept 25-28; New York, NY. Philadelphia (PA): AACR; Cancer Immunol Res 2016;4(11 Suppl):Abstract nr B037.
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