Immunotherapy for cancer has had two main approaches that have led to clinical applications. The first is stimulating immune responses to tumor cells with cytokines or cellular immunotherapy and the second is blocking tumor immune evasion and the associated inhibition of T-cell activation with antibodies to the CTLA-4 receptor, PD-1 receptor or PD-L1. We have taken a different approach and have developed therapeutic cancer vaccines that are a combination of tumor antigens (proteins overexpressed by tumors) with biological adjuvants (the cytokines IL-2 and GM-CSF). This study is a Phase 1a/1b clinical trial of a PSA/IL-2/GM-CSF vaccine in recurrent prostate cancer in hormone-naïve and hormone-independent patients. Major inclusion criteria include adenocarcinoma of the prostate, rising serum PSA and no measurable disease. Phase 1a examines the rate of dose limiting adverse events (DLAEs) in an initial course of 6 vaccinations (“induction vaccination”). Twenty patients will receive intradermal injections of the PSA/IL-2/GM-CSF vaccine at weeks 0, 1, 2, 6, 10 and 14. To date, twelve patients in the Phase 1a portion of the trial have received all 6 vaccines. Eight of the 11 patients who have received all 6 vaccines had increased immune responses to PSA in a lymphocyte blastogenesis assay by week 19. Six of 10 of the patients had an increase in the doubling time of their serum PSA, suggesting a slowing of the progression of the cancer. Median follow up after the first vaccine is 23 months (range: 4-32 months). None of the patients vaccinated in the Phase 1a portion have had a DLAE and enrollment continues in the Phase 1a.
Citation Format: Jonathan F. Head, Gregory A. Daniels, Michelle McKinney, Weg Ongkeko, Kyoko Sakamoto, Jessica Wang-Rodriguez. Phase I clinical trial of a PSA, IL-2, GM-CSF containing prostate cancer vaccine in PSA defined biochemical recurrent prostate cancer patients [abstract]. In: Proceedings of the Second CRI-CIMT-EATI-AACR International Cancer Immunotherapy Conference: Translating Science into Survival; 2016 Sept 25-28; New York, NY. Philadelphia (PA): AACR; Cancer Immunol Res 2016;4(11 Suppl):Abstract nr B009.
- ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.