What We're Reading
Cancer Immunol Res October 1 2016 4 (10) 813-813;
PD-L1 is a cell surface ligand negatively regulating immune responses. A simple PCR-based method that assesses PD-L1 surface expression is described that overcomes some obstacles to the use of PD-L1 as a prognostic marker and therapeutic target in leukemia.
mRCC patients were assessed for mutational load and expression of active tumor microenvironment markers to find correlates with MSKCC risk prognostic classifications. No correlations were found; thus, patients who would benefit most from immunotherapy are not yet identifiable.
In the U.S., HPV is responsible for more than 26,000 new cancer cases annually. A novel and effective immunotherapeutic vaccine against many types of HPV16-associated cancers was developed that supports targeting vaccines to dendritic cells via CD40.
Tumor cryoablation plus immune checkpoint blockade facilitates antitumor T-cell responses (TCRs) and improves survival in mice. Deep sequencing of TCRs in human early-stage breast cancer tumors revealed T-cell clonality and density and served as a biomarker after cryo-immunotherapy.
Although blockade of the PD-1 pathway has been successfully used to treat various cancers, how this modulates host–tumor interactions is not well understood. Additional mechanisms beyond licensing the final effector phase of killer T cells were identified.
Inhibiting both CTLA-4 and VEGF can lead to favorable clinical outcomes. This treatment increased the expression of IL1α, TNFα, IP-10, and the adhesion receptors associated with increased tumor lymphocyte infiltration, and augmented humoral immune responses recognizing tumor targets.
The efficacy of chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)–modified T cells against solid tumors is not proven. Retinoids are clinically accessible and were found to modulate tumor myeloid-derived suppressor cells, enhancing the efficacy of CAR therapies targeting solid tumors.
Tumor-associated Tn-MUC1 glycosylated, but not unglycosylated, peptides, induce strong murine immunity. Tn-MUC1 vaccination in macaques and a clinical trial with a Tn-MUC-DC vaccine confirmed the safety and the superiority of Tn-MUC1 vaccination for induction of cellular immune responses.