The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of LOAd immunotherapy to treat pancreatic cancer in a xenograft model as well as to determine the capacity of LOAds to stimulate the immune system in in vitro models. LOAd viruses are oncolytic adenoviruses (5/35) armed with immunostimulatory genes in order to shift the tumor milieu towards immune activation at the same time providing release and spread of tumor antigens due to oncolysis. In this manner, LOAd virus is an antigen-independent immunotherapy for various solid tumors.
LOAd armed with CD40 ligand (LOAd700) was constructed from the ICOVIR system by changing the virus shaft and knob to that of serotype 35 to broaden virus binding and entry into cells (pending patent EP14163704). Oncolysis in OCOVIRs is restricted to cells with a disrupted Rb pathway. Viruses were produced using A549 cells. The pancreatic cancer cell lines BxPC3, Panc01, MiaPaCa2 and PaCa3 were used for in vitro evaluation and Panc01 was used in the xenograft model in Nu/Nu mice. Human dendritic cells (DCs) were obtained by differentiation of CD14+ monocytes with GM-CSF and IL4 for 7 days.
LOAd viruses infected both the panel of pancreatic tumor cell lines and human DCs with high efficacy and both the cell lines and the DCs expressed the CMV driven transgene/s post transduction. The oncolytic LOAd virus did not kill DCs nor healthy pancreatic cells present in donor islet cell isolation surplus material. In contrast, oncolysis was restricted to the tumor cell lines. The LOAd-transduced DCs increased markers of maturation such as MHC II, CD86, CD70 and CD83 and produced high levels of IL12. LOAd stimulated DCs were able to activate and expand antigen-specific T cells and NK cells as demonstrated in a CMV in vitro system. LOAd viruses could control tumor growth in a xenograft immunodeficient model due to oncolysis alone.
In conclusion, LOAd700 can kill pancreatic tumor cells in vitro and control growing tumor in mice due to oncolysis alone. Further, upon DC transduction, LOAd viruses mature DCs to efficient antigen presenters and stimulators of Th1 effector cells such as T cells and NK cells. LOAd is an interesting new immunotherapy for solid malignancies including pancreatic cancer.
Citation Format: Emma Svensson, Rafael Moreno, Ioanna Milenova, Lisa Christiansson, Ramon Alemany, Angelica Loskog. Immunotherapy using LOAd700 armed with CD40 ligand controls experimental pancreatic cancer and activates immune responses. [abstract]. In: Proceedings of the AACR Special Conference: Tumor Immunology and Immunotherapy: A New Chapter; December 1-4, 2014; Orlando, FL. Philadelphia (PA): AACR; Cancer Immunol Res 2015;3(10 Suppl):Abstract nr A25.
- ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.