Immune therapies are usually successful in a fraction of patients. Squamous cell carcinomas originate in a stratified epithelium, and distinctly different immune responses were found to be driven by the state of differentiation of the tumor-initiating cell.
Resistance to anti-estrogen therapy is common among metastatic breast cancer patients. Estradiol increased secretion of TGFβ1 from cancer cells and LFA-1 on neutrophils, which led to increased cancer cell dissemination. Targeting these pathways may enhance treatment efficacy.